Magnetic Resonance and Safety

Budinger TF. Thresholds for physiological effects due to RF and magnetic fields used in NMR imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, NS 26(2):2821-2825, 1979.

Budinger TF. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in vivo studies: Known thresholds for health effects. J Comput Assist Tomogr 5:800-811, 1981.

Brownell GL, Budinger TF, Lauterbur PC, and McGear PL. Positron tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Science 215:619-626, 1982.

Tenforde TS, Gaffey CT, Moyer BR, and Budinger TF. Cardiovascular alterations in Macaca monkeys exposed to stationary magnetic fields: Experimental observations and theoretical analysis. Bioelectromagnetics 4:1-9, 1983.

Budinger TF and Lauterbur PC. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology for medical studies. Science 226:288-298, 1984.

Friedland RP, Budinger TF, Brant-Zawadski B, and Jagust WJ. The diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia: A preliminary comparison of positron emission tomography and proton magnetic resonance. JAMA 252, 19:2750-2752, 1984.

Soulen RL, Budinger TF, and Higgins CB. Magnetic resonance imaging of prosthetic heart valves. Radiology 154:705-707, 1985.

Budinger TF. Health effects of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance. IEEE Eng Bio Med Mag, pp 31-38, September 1985.

Richards T and Budinger TF. NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation. Radiat Res 113:79-101, 1988.

Wong STS, Roos MS, Newmark RD and Budinger TF. Discrete analysis of stochastic NMR. I. J Mag Res 87:242-264, 1990.

Wong STS, Roos MS, Newmark RD and Budinger TF. Discrete analysis of stochastic NMR. II. J Mag Res 87:265-286, 1990.

Keltner JR, Roos MS, Brakeman PR, and Budinger TF. Magnetohydrodynamics of Blood Flow. Mag Res Med, 16, pp. 139-149, 1990.

Budinger TF, Fischer H, Hentschel D, Reinfelder H-E and Schmitt F. Physiological effects of fast-oscillating magnetic field gradients. J Comput Asst Tomog, 15(6):909-914, 1991.

Keltner JR, Carlson JW, Roos MS, Wong STS, Wong TL and Budinger TF. Electromagnetic fields of surface coil in vivo NMR at high frequencies. Mag Reson Med 22:467-480, 1991.

Walleczek J and Budinger TF. Pulsed magnetic field effects on calcium signaling in lymphocytes: Dependence on cell status and field intensity. FEBS Letters 314:351-355, 1992.

Kwo-On-Yuen PF, Newmark RD, Budinger TF, Kaye JA, Ball MJ, Jagust WJ. Brain N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid in Alzheimer’s disease: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Brain Research 667, 167-174, 1994.

Albert MS, Schepkin VD and Budinger TF. Measurement of 129Xe T1 in blood to explore the feasibility of hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 19:6, pp. 975-98, 1995.

Bifone A, Song Y-Q, Seydoux R, Taylor RE, Goodson BM, Pietrass T, Budinger TF, Navon G and Pines A. NMR of laser-polarized xenon in human blood. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, November, vol. 93, pp. 12932-12936, 1996.

Schepkin VD, Choy IO and Budinger TF. Sodium alterations in isolated rat heart during cardioplegic arrest. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81:6, pp. 2696-2702, December 1996.

Star-Lack JM, Roos MS, Wong STS, Schepkin VD and Budinger TF. Four-dimensional 1H and 23Na imaging using continuous oscillating gradients. J Magn Reson, 124:2, pp. 420-438, February 1997.

Goodson BM, Song Y-Q, Taylor RE, Schepkin VD, Brennan KM, Chingas GC, Budinger TF, Navon G and Pines A. In vivo NMR and MRI using injection delivery of laser-polarized xenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 94, pp. 14725-14729, December 1997.

Nelson SJ, Day MR, Buffone PJ, Wald LL, Budinger TF, Hawkins R, Dillon WP, Huhn S, Prados MD, Chang S and Vigneron DB. Alignment of volume MR images and high resolution [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET images for the evaluation of patients with brain tumors. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 21(2):183-191, 1997.

Schepkin VD, Choy IO, Budinger TF, Obayashi D, Taylor S, DeCampli WM, Amartur S and Young JN. Sodium TQF NMR and intracellular Na in isolated crystalloid perfused rat heart. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 39(4), 557-63, 1998.

Budinger TF. MR safety: past, present, and future from a historical perspective. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America, 6:4, 701-714, 1998.

Seab JP, Jagust WJ, Wong STS, Roos MS, Reed BR and Budinger TF. Quantitative NMR measurements of hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease. J Mag Res Med 8:200-208, 1988.

Budinger T, Berson A, McVeigh E, Pettigrew R, Pohost G, Watson J, Wickline S. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 1(1), 53-58, 1999.

Budinger TF, Lenkinski RE. Na+ and K+ multiple and single quantum MRI potential for studying brain function. In: Proceedings of the International school of Physics "Enrico Fermi," Course CXXXIX. B. Maraviglia (Ed.), IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp 411-425, 1999.

Schepkin VD, Choy IO, Budinger TF, Young JN, DeCampli WM. Multi-dose crystalloid cardioplegia preserves intracellular sodium homeostasis in myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol, 31, 1643-1651, May 1999.

Schoenemann PT, Budinger TF, Sarich VM and Wang WS. Brain size does not predict general cognitive ability within families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 97: 4932-7, 2000.

Meriles CA, Sakellariou D, Moulé A, Goldman M, Budinger TF and Pines A. High-resolution NMR of static samples by rotation of the magnetic field. J Magn Reson 169(1):13-18, 2004.

Jachmann RC, Trease DR, Bouchard L-S, Sakellariou D, Martin RW, Schlueter RD, Budinger TF and Pines A. Multipole shimming of permanent magnets using harmonic corrector rings. Rev Sci Instrum 78, 035115 (7 pp.), March 2007.

Schlueter RD and Budinger TF. Magic angle rotating field NMR/MRI magnet for in vivo monitoring of tissue. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 18(2):864-867, June 2008.

Polenova T, Budinger TF. Ultrahigh field NMR and MRI: science at a crossroads. Report on a jointly-funded NSF, NIH and DOE workshop, held on November 12–13, 2015 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 266:81–86, May 2016.

Budinger TF, Bird MD, Frydman L, Long JR, Mareci TH, Rooney WD, Rosen B, Schenck JF, Schepkin VD, Sherry AD, Sodickson DK, Springer CS, Thulborn KR, Uğurbil K, Wald LL. Toward 20 T magnetic resonance for human brain studies: opportunities for discovery and neuroscience rationale. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine. 29(3):617–639, June 2016.

Budinger TF and Bird MD. MRI and MRS of the human brain at magnetic fields of 14 to 20 T: Technical feasibility, safety and neuroscience rationale. Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 5. pii: S1053-8119(17)30090-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.067. [Epub ahead of print]

Foster KR, Moulder J, Budinger TF Will an MRI Examination Damage Your Genes?  Radiation Research (commentary)  Radiation Research, 187(1):1-6. 2017 

Schepkin V, Neubauer A, Nagel AM, Budinger TF. Comparison of potassium and sodium in vivo and in agarose samples using TQTPP pulse sequence. Journal of Magnetic Resonance 277 162–168, 2017